BLTM (Branched Lagrangian Transport Model)

BLTM

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contributed at 2020-01-07

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Model Description

English {{currentDetailLanguage}} English

Quoted from: https://water.usgs.gov/cgi-bin/man_wrdapp?bltm(1) 

      BLTM uses Lagrangian calculations that are unconditionally stable and based upon a reference frame that moves at a velocity equal to the mean channel flow velocity.  BLTM results are within the accuracy required by most water-quality studies.  The BLTM is easily applied to unsteady flows in networks of one-dimensional channels with fixed geometry and tributary inflows.  Reaction kinetics for up to 10 constituents are provided in a user-written decay-coefficient subroutine.  Postprocessor plot programs improve the utility of the model.  The model routes any number of interacting constituents through a system of one-dimensional channels.

      The following programs are included in the BLTM distribution:

          cbltm   - branched Lagrangian transport model

          qbltm   - bltm with qual2e

          tbltm   - bltm with temperature

          bbltm   - builds the input file for BLTM

          bqual2e - builds the input file for QBLTM

          mrg     - builds a table of data by adding or modifying a column based on data in files old.bc and in, writes file bc

          ctplt   - plots concentration vs time and compute the RMS error

          cxplt   - plots concentration vs distance

          equltmp - computes the equilibrium temperature from daily extreme temperatures

          solar   - computes the solar radiation from empirical equations

       The following programs are included in the BLTM distribution and are also available as a separate DAFLOW distribution:

          daflow  - diffusion analogy flow model

          wdaflo  - diffusion analogy flow model, uses either flat file or wdm data base

          flwopt  - computes RMS errors to optimize hydraulic coefficients

          bdaflow - builds the input file for DAFLOW

          cel     - computes coefficients for area and width equations

          intrp   - interpolates data to an even interval

          unit    - reads unit values from adaps and uses a rating table to do something

          flwplt  - estimates ungaged inflow and plot

METHOD

       The model solves the one-dimensional convective-diffusion equation with reaction kinetics.

HISTORY

       The program was developed during the time period 1973-87. This distribution was first compiled and given a version number in 1994.

       Version 1.2 1996/11/04 - Several problems were found in the qual2e.f code.  Modifications for computing negative flows in computing reaeration coefficients were made.  Additionally, there were problems related to negative DO; the rate of decay of ammonia and nitrite were stopped when the DO approached zero but the consumption of DO in the nonexistent transformation continued. This has been fixed.

          In daflow.f, the code was incorrectly checking the value of IERR for 1 rather than 21, causing the code to fail to print the error message for too many waves in a branch.  Code was corrected.

       Version 1.1 1995/04/11 - The daflow program was changed to read in slope instead of wave dispersion coefficient.  This allows the program to vary the wave attenuation with discharge; the bdaflow program was changed to ask for slope values rather than dispersion.

          The cel program was modified to add a new option to adjust W2 holding the width constant.  For the first two options it also computes coefficients based on channel forming discharge.  It no longer asks for a characteristic discharge.  It also computes a representative wave length and a wave length value needed for smooth results.

       Version 1.0 1995/02/08 - The cel program was modified to include two methods for computing W1:  from measured width (option 0) or from channel forming discharge (option 1, the original method).

          The daflow program was changed to correct a problem that occurred in selecting the range of flows for estimation in the trial error solutions for the discharge in the mixed wave.  The problem occurred when you had a tributary extracting more flow than exists in the smallest wave.

       1994/08/03 - Changes were made in the bbltm and cbltm programs that cause the cbltm input file (bltm.in) to have a different format. The diffusion coefficient is being entered on different records. If a bltm.in file that was created using an earlier version of bbltm or cbltm, cbltm will produce results that are in error.

       1993/06 - The program wdaflo (a modified version of daflow) was developed to support the use of the Watershed Data Management (WDM) file for storage and management of input and output time series.

DATA REQUIREMENTS

       Flow--areas, top widths, and velocities at each grid point are needed for each time step.  Initial conditions--concentration of each constituent at each grid at time zero.  Boundary conditions--concentration of each constituent at upstream junctions and in each tributary during each time step.

OUTPUT OPTIONS

       Data are output in text files.  Postprocessor programs are available to produce graphical and tabular summaries.

SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS

       BLTM and DAFLOW are written in Fortran 77 with the following extensions: include files and variable program names longer than 6 characters.  wdaflow uses the UTIL, ADWDM, and WDM libraries from LIB. A subset of these libraries is provided with the code and may be used instead of the libraries; this subset uses INTEGER*4 and mixed type equivalence. For more information, see System Requirements in LIB. ctplt, cxplt, and flwplt may be implemented with a user-supported Computer Associates DISSPLA library or the LIB libraries GRAPH, UTIL, and STATS.

DOCUMENTATION

       Jobson, H.E., 1997, Enhancements to the Branched Lagrangian transport modeling system: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 97-4050, 57 p.

       Jobson, H.E., and Schoellhamer, D.H., 1987, Users manual for a Branched Lagrangian transport model:  U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 87-4163, 73 p.

       Schoellhamer, D.H., and Jobson, H.E., 1986, Programmers manual for a one-dimensional Lagrangian transport model:  U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 86-4144, 101 p.

       Schoellhamer, D.H., and Jobson, H.E., 1986, Users manual for a one-dimensional Lagrangian transport model:  U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 86-4145, 95 p.

REFERENCES

       Bulak, J.S., Hurley, N.M., Jr., and Crane, J.S., 1993, Production, mortality, and transport of striped bass eggs in Congaree and Wateree Rivers, South Carolina:  American Fisheries Society Symposium 14, 1993, p. 29-37.

       Hurley, N.M., Jr., 1991, Transport simulation of striped bass eggs in the Congaree, Wateree, and Santee Rivers, South Carolina: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 91-4088, 57 p.

       Jobson, H.E., 1981, Temperature and solute-transport simulation in streamflow using a Lagrangian reference frame:  U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 81-2, 165 p.

       Jobson, H.E., 1985, Modeling temperature, BOD, DO and the nitrogen cycle in the Chattahoochee River, Georgia, using the land flow model:  U.S. Geological Survey Water-Supply Paper 2264.

       Jobson, H.E., 1987, Modeling dye and gas transport in the Missouri River, Nebraska, the Madison effluent channel, Wisconsin, and Trinity River, Texas: Water Resources Research, v. 23, no. 1.

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How to Cite

U.S. Geological Survey (2020). BLTM (Branched Lagrangian Transport Model), Model Item, OpenGMS, https://geomodeling.njnu.edu.cn/modelItem/00d58a3f-8342-4144-93f9-3ff967bdb050
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