黄土高原蒸发力的计算模型

黄土高原蒸发力的计算模型

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Initial contribute: 2018-12-04

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黄土高原蒸发力的计算模型

 

(1)彭曼蒸发力公式为:

式中,E0为下垫面的蒸发力;Rn为充分湿润蒸发面的辐射平衡(J×cm-2×d-1)Ea为空气干燥力(mm×d-1)d为气温等于Ta时饱和水汽压对温度的斜率;L为蒸发潜热(J×cm-3)r为干湿表常数(dr单位为mb×°C-1)d/(r+d)r/(r+d)称为转换成水蒸气能量的“加权因子”,它们是无因次量。

(2)对“加权因子”和的订正采用下两式:

式中,ea为气温等于Ta时的饱和水汽压;d仅是温度的函数。

式中:Cp为干空气定压比热(J×g-1×K-1),它随温度变化小,可视为常数,取值0.24e为水汽分子量对于干空气分子量的比,取值为0.622L为蒸发潜热(J×cm-1),也近似为常数,取值为245.346P为大气压力(mb),随海拔高度而降低。

(3)对辐射量的订正:

彭曼蒸发力公式中的辐射平衡项由下式确定:

式中,第一项为短波辐射的收入项,其经验系数只适用在一定的高度范围内,未考虑太阳辐射随高度变化,需要订正为:;第二项长波辐射的收入项,其计算经度可满足地理学、农学及灌溉设计上的要求,仍按原式计算。

(4)进行以上两项订正后的彭曼公式:

式中:为晴天最大辐射量(MJ×m-2)ed为绝对湿度;ea为饱和水汽压;为饱和差(mb)u22m高度的平均水平风速(m×d-1)a为充分湿润条件下的蒸发面的反射率。黄土高原自然植被有林、灌木、草,反射率取值0.18

 

参考文献

王菱等:黄土高原蒸发力的计算和应用――兼谈改善生态环境的途径。自然资源学报,1988,3(2)

 

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《资源环境数学模型手册》 (2018). 黄土高原蒸发力的计算模型, Model Item, OpenGMS, https://geomodeling.njnu.edu.cn/modelItem/06108c55-3cbf-4b42-b1cf-b42c9e9f3be4
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岳天祥编著
:  
yue@lreis.ac.cn
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