The Second Generation Chesapeake Bay Operational Forecast System (CBOFS2): A ROMS‐Based Modeling System. This is a special case of the Regional Ocean Modeling System(ROMS). The National Ocean Service presently has an Operational Forecast System (CBOFS) for the Chesapeake Bay which generates only water levels and depth‐integrated currents. As a next generation system, a fully three‐dimensional, baroclinic Forecast System (CBOFS2) was developed, calibrated and validated; this system will produce water levels, currents, temperature and salinity. First, a two‐month tides only simulation was conducted to validate the water levels and currents and thereafter, a synoptic hindcast simulation from June 01, 2003–September 01, 2005 was conducted to validate water levels, currents, temperature and salinity. Upon comparison with observations, CBOFS2 for the most part met the target NOS water level error criteria and for current error, the criteria were met exceptionally well; the temperature and salinity errors were frequently less than 1 C and 3 PSU respectively. Hence, the predictive accuracy of CBOFS2 warranted it being accepted as a suitable three‐dimensional upgrade to CBOFS.



Initial contribute: 2021-09-16


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Application-focused categoriesNatural-perspectiveOcean regions

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ROMS is a member of a general class of three-dimensional, free-surface, terrain-following numerical mod[1]els that solve the Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes equations using the hydrostatic and Boussinesq assump[1]tions [6,7]. The governing dynamical equations – in flux form, Cartesian horizontal coordinates and sigma vertical coordinates – take the traditional form:

with the continuity equation:

and scalar transport given by:

Here u, v, and X are the components of velocity in the horizontal (x and y) and vertical (scaled sigma coor[1]dinate, s) directions respectively; f is the wave-averaged free-surface elevation; h is the depth of the sea floor below mean sea level; Hz is a vertical stretching factor; and f is the Coriolis parameter. An over-bar represents a time average, and a prime (0 ) represents turbulent fluctuations. Pressure is p; q and q0 are total and reference densities; g is the acceleration due to gravity; m and mh are molecular viscosity and diffusivity; C represents a tracer quantity (for example, salt, temperature, and suspended-sediment); Csource are tracer source/sink terms. Finally, a function ½q ¼ f ðC; pÞ

 is required to specify the equation of state.


These equations are closed by parameterizing the Reynolds stresses and turbulent tracer fluxes as:

where KM is the eddy viscosity for momentum and KH is the eddy diffusivity for tracers. This results in the standard (harmonic) form for the vertical viscous/diffusive terms. Analogous operators may be added to represent sub-gridscale mixing in the horizontal, although they will not be used in many of the applications reviewed below (see Section 3.7). The horizontal Cartesian coordinates ðx; yÞ may also be replaced by a more general curvilinear coordinate (n,g), in which case additional metric terms appear in these equations.

Quoted from : Ocean forecasting in terrain-following coordinates: Formulation and skill assessment of the Regional Ocean Modeling System



Lyon Lanerolle (2021). CBOFS2, Model Item, OpenGMS, https://geomodeling.njnu.edu.cn/modelItem/32df4d66-539d-4e4e-8408-8932c1c754aa


Initial contribute : 2021-09-16



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