SUTRA

SUTRA simulates saturated and/or unsaturated, constant-density or density-dependent groundwater flow and either single-species reactive solute transport or thermal energy transport. Simulations can be either two-dimensional or fully three-dimensional. Solutions can be either steady-state or transient.

groundwater flow
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contributed at 2019-06-28

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Classification(s)

Earth System SubjectEarth Surface SystemHydrosphere

Detailed Description

SUTRA simulates saturated and/or unsaturated, constant-density or density-dependent groundwater flow and either single-species reactive solute transport or thermal energy transport. Simulations can be either two-dimensional or fully three-dimensional. Solutions can be either steady-state or transient. SUTRA's main features and limitations are summarized below:

    PHYSICS

  • Groundwater flow
    • saturated/unsaturated
    • constant-density or density-dependent
    • user-programmable unsaturated flow functions
  • Transport
    • single solute or thermal energy
    • zeroth- and first-order solute production/decay; zeroth-order energy production/decay
    • linear, Freundlich, or Langmuir adsorption
  • Time dependence
    • steady-state or transient solution
    • time-varying boundary conditions specified via input files or programmable subroutine

    GEOMETRY

  • Two-dimensional (2D) models
    • Cartesian coordinates or
    • radial/cylindrical coordinates
  • Three-dimensional (3D) models
    • Cartesian coordinates
    • fully 3D

    NUMERICAL METHODS

  • Discretization
    • hybrid Galerkin-finite-element and integrated-finite-difference method
    • quadrilateral (2D) or generalized hexahedral (3D) finite elements
    • fully implicit finite-difference time discretization
  • Nonlinear problems
    • Variable-density and/or unsaturated flow problems are nonlinear
    • Picard iteration available to resolve nonlinearities
  • Matrix equation solvers
    • Gaussian elimination (direct)
    • preconditioned CG (iterative; only for flow equation without upstream weighting)
    • preconditioned GMRES (iterative)
    • preconditioned ORTHOMIN (iterative)

    INPUT AND OUTPUT

  • Input
    • all input data are contained in text files
    • input data are grouped into "datasets"
  • Output
    • output is written to text files and to the screen
    • flexible, columnwise listing of pressure, concentration or temperature, saturation, and velocity
    • observation well output (pressure, concentration or temperature, and saturation vs. time)
    • fluid mass and solute mass or energy budgets
  • Preprocessing and postprocessing software (details below)
    • facilitates formulation of input datasets
    • helps with interpretation of results

Resources available

Each of the codes in the SutraSuite package is accompanied by detailed documentation in the form of a U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) report in Adobe PDF format. The documentation files can be obtained from the same web sites that serve the codes; see "Downloading the codes and documentation" on the "Getting started" page. (To view the documentation files, you must have Acrobat Reader® software installed on your computer. The software can be downloaded free-of-charge from the Adobe web site*.)

 

References

How to cite

U.S. Geological Survey (USGS),SUTRA (2019). SUTRA, Model Item, OpenGMS, https://geomodeling.njnu.edu.cn/modelItem/5302c6bd-ee82-4409-9490-44022b21aacc
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contributed at 2019-06-28

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