One-Dimensional Transport with Inflow and Storage (OTIS): A Solute Transport Model for Streams and Rivers. One-Dimensional Transport with Inflow and Storage (OTIS): A Solute Transport Model for Streams and Rivers OTIS is a mathematical simulation model used to characterize the fate and transport of water-borne solutes in streams and rivers. The governing equation underlying the model is the advection-dispersion equation with additional terms to account for transient storage, lateral inflow, first-order decay, and sorption. This equation and the associated equations describing transient storage and sorption are solved using a Crank-Nicolson finite-difference solution. OTIS may be used in conjunction with data from field-scale tracer experiments to quantify the hydrologic parameters affecting solute transport. This application typically involves a trial-and-error approach wherein parameter estimates are adjusted to obtain an acceptable match between simulated and observed tracer concentrations. Additional applications include analyses of nonconservative solutes that are subject to sorption processes or first-order decay. OTIS-P, a modified version of OTIS, couples the solution of the governing equation with a nonlinear regression package. OTIS-P determines an optimal set of parameter estimates that minimize the squared differences between the simulated and observed concentrations, thereby automating the parameter estimation process.

biogeochemistrywater quality



Initial contribute: 2021-09-14


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Application-focused categoriesNatural-perspectiveLand regions
Application-focused categoriesNatural-perspectiveOcean regions

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The analyses presented are based on the transient storage equations as implemented within the OTIS solute transport model (Runkel 1998). These equations are functionally equivalent to alternate formulations presented in the literature (e.g., Thackston and Schnelle 1970, Nordin and Troutman 1980, Hart 1995). The equations describe the physical processes of advection, dispersion, and transient storage. Two conceptual areas are defined within the model: the main channel and the storage zone. The main channel is defined as the portion of the stream in which advection and dispersion are the dominant transport mechanisms. The storage zone is defined as the portion of the stream that con- tributes to transient storage, i.e., the hyporheic zone, pools, and eddies. The exchange of solute mass between the main channel and the storage zone is modeled as a 1st-order mass transfer process. Given this conceptual framework, equations describing the spatial and temporal variation in solute concentrations are given by:

Where A is the main channel cross-sectional area (m2), AS is the cross-sectional area of the storage zone (m2),Cis the main channel solute concentration (mg/L), CS is the storage zone solute concentration (mg/L),CLis the lateral inflow solute concentration (mg/L),Dis the dispersion coefficient (m2/s),Qis the volumetric flow rate (m3/s), qL is the lateral inflow rate on a per length basis (m3/s-m),tis time (s), x is distance (m), and a is the storage zone exchange coefficient (/s).

The model parameters presented above have been used to develop various metrics for intra-

and interstream comparisons. A commonly used metric is the simple ratio of storage zone cross-sectional area and main channel cross-sectional area, AS/A. Another common metric is Ls, the average distance a molecule travels downstream within the main channel prior to entering the storage zone (Mulholland et al. 1994):

Quoted from : A new metric for determining the importance of transient storage. 





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