潜在生态危害指数法

潜在生态危害指数法

RI潜在生态危害指数法

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Initial contribute: 2021-06-25

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Method-focused categoriesData-perspectiveGeoinformation analysis

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潜在生态危害指数法( RI) 简介

1.潜在生态危害指数法的影响因素

Hakanson认为,潜在生态危害指数以以下四个条件为基础:(1)含量条件:表层沉积物的金属浓度。RI值应随表层金属污染程度的加重而增大;(2)数量条件:金属污染物的种类数。受多种金属污染的沉积物的RI值应高于只受少数几种金属污染的沉积物的RI值。(3)毒性条件:金属的毒性水平。毒性条件是根据丰度原则来区分各种污染物,由于重金属的沉积作用及对固体的亲合作用使得毒性和稀有性之间存在着一种比例关系。毒性高的金属应比毒性低的金属对RI值有较大贡献。(4)敏感性条件:水体对金属污染的敏感性。对金属污染敏感性大的水体应比敏感性小的水体有较高的RI值。

2.潜在生态危害指数的计算

(1)单个元素的污染系数(\( C_r^i \)) \( C_r^i=C_m^i/C_n^i \)确定,式中:\( C_r^i \)为某一重金属的污染系数,\( C_i \)实测为表层沉积物重金属元素的实测含量,\( C_n^i \)为该元素的评价标准;(2)某取样点的沉积物重金属污染度(\( C_d \))由公式\( C_d=∑C_r^i \)确定,是多种重金属污染系数之和;(3)各重金属的毒性响应系数\( T_r^i \),反映重金属的毒性强度及水体对重金属的敏感程度,通过计算可以得出;(4)某一重金属的潜在生态危害系数\( E_r^i=T_r^i C_r^i \)(5)某一点沉积物多种重金属综合潜在生态危害指数RI\( =\displaystyle\sum_{i=1}^{n} E_r^i \)。由上式可以推出RI\( =\displaystyle\sum_{i=1}^{n} T_r^i C_r^i=\displaystyle\sum_{i=1}^{n} T_r^i C_m^i/C_n^i \),m表示实测数据。

潜在生态危害系数(\( E_r^i \))描述某一污染物(元素)的污染程度,从低到高分为5个等级;而潜在生态危害指数(RI)描述某一点多个污染物潜在生态危害系数的综合值,此值分为4个等级,见下表。

                                                                                           

参考文献

徐争启,倪师军,庹先国,张成江.潜在生态危害指数法评价中重金属毒性系数计算[J].环境科学与技术,2008(02):112-115.

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jingjing yu (2021). 潜在生态危害指数法, Model Item, OpenGMS, https://geomodeling.njnu.edu.cn/modelItem/bdb4c822-233a-4962-b65d-bd94bf691745
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