FIRESUM (FIRE SUccession Model)

FIRESUM is an ecological process model for fire succession in western conifer forests.

ecological processfire successionwestern conifer forests


Initial contribute: 2020-01-03


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Application-focused categoriesNatural-perspectiveLand regions
Application-focused categoriesNatural-perspectiveAtmospheric regions

Detailed Description

English {{currentDetailLanguage}} English

Quoted from: FIRESUM-An Ecological ProcessModel for Fire Succession in Western Conifer Forests.,+woody+fuel+accumulation,&source=bl&ots=lqEL-fxbgC&sig=ACfU3U1-_RV9Zrxbze7UBxtVXoQ4XjvgWg&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwjsktXzr4HuAhUJmIsKHdqIChwQ6AEwAnoECAIQAg#v=onepage&q&f=false 

     FIRESUM is a deterministic model containing stochastic properties. Tree growth, woody fuel accumulation, and litterfall are simulated deterministically, whereas tree establishment and mortality are stochastic algorithms. The model simulates all processes on an individual tree level in a 400-square-meter area called the simulation plot. Because the particular combination of stochastic events occurring within a given FIRESUM simulation represents only one case among the set of many possible simulation outcomes, the model repeats simulations many times to obtain an average of simulated results.

      FIRESUM is a gap-replacement model(Shugart andWest 1980) following the approach used for JABOWA(Botkin and others 1972) in which individual trees are grown deterministically using an annual time step, difference equation. Tree growth is affected by several site factors, including available light, water stress, and grow-ing season warmth. Tree establishment and mortality armodeled stochastically using Monte Carlo techniques. Fuel loadings are calculated yearly. Fires are introduced at various intervals, and effects of each fire are simulated by reduction of litter, duff, and down woody fuels; and by tree mortality and postfire tree regeneration and growth.

      FIRESUM was programmed in the FORTRAN 77 language and contains over 2000 lines of code, with 43 sub-routines and the main driver (appendix A). A generalized flow chart for FIRESUM execution is presented in figure1.FIRESUM execution starts with tree and site parameters read into the program from external data files (TREE.DAT and SITE.DAT as shown in appendixes Band C) in subroutines TREE and SITE.DAT. External files allow efficient modification of parameters and facilitate the execution of simultaneous runs. The tree parameter file (Appendix B) consists of numbers describing each tree species in terms of the model's algorithms. For example, the maximum height of each tree species used ingrowth algorithm of FIRESUM(Hin appendix B) is represented in the tree parameter file. The site file (appendix C) contains parameters that describe the simulation site. Initial tree data for a sample plot are read from data file CONTRL.DAT(appendix D) into subroutine control and then these input trees are distributed on the plot in DIST. These data represent the simulations and at the start of the simulation. Parameters used to summarize site conditions are read from subroutine SITE.DAT and used to compute growth reduction factors in CALCand SITE. Frequency of cone crops and fire years are computed in CYCLES and RINGS, repectivelyEstablishment of new trees is done in BIRTH, trees are then grown in subroutine GROWand subject to mortality in KILL, thereby completing a normal tree life cycle.

      Fuel loadings are annually estimated in FUEL, LOADER, and BRUSH, and are passed to subroutine FIRE when afire is initiated. Fire intensity is calculated in FIREMODfrom these fuel loading predictions. Subsequent tree mortality from fire is estimated in INJURY using function risk. Fuel reduction is performed in subroutine BRNOFFand the new loadings are passed back to FUEL.BASAL stores a running average annual basal area by species, which is then passed to subroutine OUTPUT at program termination. OUTPUT prints final results to external files.

      Several subroutines not shown in figure 1 are also used in model execution. Subroutine SNAG estimates woody fuel contributed by recently dead trees and adds that amount to the fuel bed.FOLIAGE computes the leaf area of each tree on the simulation plot. Subroutines BEETLE and RUST are used to compute mortality caused by the mountain pine beetle and white pine blister rust. Crown fires are modeled in subroutine CROWN, which predicts when a ground or surface fire becomes hot enough to ignite tree crowns. This submodel is in the developmental stage and needs additional testing before implementation into FIRESUM. Subroutine RANDX is the random number generator. The growth reduction factor for water stress is computed in WRSTRS. The degree of shading based on leaf area is computed in SHADE, and the flame length is computed in FLTEMP.







FIRESUM team (2020). FIRESUM (FIRE SUccession Model), Model Item, OpenGMS,


Initial contribute : 2020-01-03



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